CNR - ISAC, Unit UOS of Padua

Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova - Italy
Tel: +39 049 8295906 e-mail: a.bernardi@isac.cnr.it
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Churches

Activity

Environmental diagnostic and investigative measures:
  1. New observational methodologies and innovative devices.
  2. Monitoring indoor and outdoor microclimate (temperature, relative humidity, moisture content, ventilation, UV, visible, and IR radiation), suspended particle distribution and artwork soiling.
  3. Response of the building to external weather variability, i.e. indoor - outdoor relationships.
  4. Evaluation of critical factors, e.g. impact of heating, lighting, ventilating and cultural mass tourism.
  5. Suggestions for mitigative remedies.
Image of the book Camuffo, D. et al., 2007: Church heating and preservation of the cultural heritage: a practical guide to the pros and cons of various heating systems - Il riscaldamento nelle chiese e la conservazione dei beni culturali: guida allfanalisi dei pro e dei contro dei vari sistemi di riscaldamento. Electa Mondadori, Milano, 240 pp.

Keywords

Statues, Paintings, Frescoes, Murals, Stained glass windows, Wooden furniture, Pews, Pipe organs, Decorations, Box ceiling, Historical buildings.

 

Particular of the Giotto frescoes
Giotto Chapel, Padova
  • Camuffo, D., 2001: Indoor Microclimatology: the Scrovegni Chapel (Giotto's Frescoes) as a Case Study, pp. 123-132 in S. Colinart et M. Menu (ed.s): La matière picturale: fresque et peinture murale. Centro Universitario Europeo per i Beni Culturali, Ravello, Edipuglia, Bari.
  • Camuffo, D., 1987: Microclimatic Study at the Scrovegni Chapel.European Cultural Heritage Newsletter on Research, 1, 2, 16-17.
  • Camuffo, D. e Schenal, P., 1982: Microclima all'interno della Cappella degli Scrovegni: scambi termodinamici tra gli affreschi e l'ambiente, pp. 107-209 in: Ministero dei Beni Culturali ed Ambientali:"Giotto a Padova", Volume speciale del Bollettino d'Arte, Poligrafico dello Stato, Roma.
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Particular of the Sistina frescoes D. Camuffo with the Pope Giovanni Paolo II
D. Camuffo with the Pope Giovanni Paolo II.
State of the Vatican City  UNESCO UNESCO's World List of Cultural Heritage Sistina Chapel, Rome
  • Camuffo, D. and Bernardi, A., 1997: Il microclima nella Cappella Sistina, in: Michelangelo e la Cappella Sistina, Edizioni Giacometti, Treviso.
  • Camuffo, D. and Bernardi, A., 1995: The Microclimate of the Sistine Chapel. Special issue, joint edition European Cultural Heritage Newsletter on Research, 9, 7-33 and Bollettino Geofisico, 18 (2), 7-33.
  • Camuffo, D. e Bernardi, A., 1986: Dinamica del microclima e scambi termoigrometrici tra pareti e atmosfera interna nella Cappella Sistina. Bollettino dei Monumenti, Musei e Gallerie Pontificie, 6, 211-257.
  • Camuffo, D., 1986: Materiali e tecniche per il restauro della Cappella Sistina. pp. 151-156 in: Confederaz. Naz. Artigianato Editore: "L'impresa del restauro" Grafiche STEP, Parma.
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Leonardo's Last Supper
 UNESCO's logo UNESCO's World List of Cultural Heritage Leonard's Last Supper in S.Maria delle Grazie, Milan
  • Camuffo, D. and Bernardi, A., 1991: The microclimate of Leonardo's "Last Supper"; joint edition European Cultural Heritage Newsletter on Research, and Bollettino Geofisico, special issue, 14, 3, 1-123.
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Santa Maria Maggiore Church
Vatican flag  UNESCO's logo UNESCO's World List of Cultural Heritage Basilica S.Maria Maggiore, Rome
  • Camuffo, D., Sturaro, G. and Valentino, A., 1999: Thermodynamic exchanges between the external boundary layer and the indoor microclimate at the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, Italy: the problem of conservation of ancient works of art, Boundary Layer Meteorology, 92, 243-262.
  • Camuffo, D. and Sturaro, G., 2001: The climate of Rome and its action on monument decay. Climate Research 16 (2), 145-155.
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Rocca Pietore Church
S. Maria Maddalena Church, Rocca Pietore (Italian Alps)

EC flag FRIENDLY HEATING project; formerly warm-air heating
  • Camuffo, D. et al., 2007: Church heating and preservation of the cultural heritage: a practical guide to the pros and cons of various heating systems - Il riscaldamento nelle chiese e la conservazione dei beni culturali: guida allfanalisi dei pro e dei contro dei vari sistemi di riscaldamento. Electa Mondadori, Milano, 240 pp.
  • Bratasz, Ł., Kozłowski, R., Camuffo, D., Pagan, E.,  2007: Impact of indoor heating on painted wood: monitoring the mediaeval altar in the church of Santa Maria Maddalena in Rocca Pietore, Italy, Studies in Conservation, 52, 199-210.
  • Camuffo, D., Sturaro, G. e Pagan, E., 2003: Un innovativo sistema di riscaldamento, confortevole per le persone e compatibile con la conservazione delle opere d'arte. Bollettino Geofisico, 26 (1-2), 133-144.
  • Camuffo, D., Sturaro, G., Valentino, A. and Camuffo, M., 1999: The Conservation of Artworks and the Hot Air Heating System in Churches: Are they Compatible? The Case of Rocca Pietore, Italian Alps. Studies in Conservation, 44, 3, 209-216.
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S. Biagio Church, Alleghe (Italian Alps)
S. Biagio Church, Alleghe (Italian Alps)

EC flag Controlled within FRIENDLY HEATING and and SENSORGAN projects. Formerly warm-air heating, now underfloor heating.

Vertical stratification of T (warm-air heating on) Temperature pattern on the floor (underfloor heating)
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Frari Basilica, Venice
 UNESCO's logo UNESCO's World List of Cultural Heritage Frari Basilica, Venice

EC flag Controlled within FRIENDLY HEATING project; formerly gas IR heaters, now pew heating.

Old gas IR heaters used in the past into the church Temperature and position of one pew heating element Globotermometric temperature near the pew heating element
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S. Stefano (Italian Alps)
S. Stefano, Italian Alps

EC flag FRIENDLY HEATING project; formerly gas IR heating; then warm-air heating; now Friendly-Heating.

Large dispersion of T due to door, windows, and ceiling Temperature profile of a Friendly-Heating heater
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Regole di Casada (Italian Alps)
Regole di Casada, Italian Alps

EC flag Controlled within FRIENDLY HEATING project; quartz halogen heaters

Globothermometer temperature Temperature gradient of a painting due to quartz halogen heater illumination
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S. Donato, Murano, Venice
 UNESCO's logo UNESCO's World List of Cultural Heritage S. Donato, Murano, Venice

EC flag Controlled within FRIENDLY HEATING project; IR gas heating

Different temperature of artworks before and after 30 min of heating Ceiling temperature
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S. Lucia, Italian Alps
S. Lucia, Italian Alps

Foot-board heating integrated with warm-air

Foot-board heating installation Spefic humidity and temperature trend
  • Camuffo, D., Sturaro, G., Valentino, A. e Camuffo, M., 1998: Il microclima nella conservazione delle opere d'arte nelle chiese: il caso di Colle S. Lucia nelle Dolomiti, Bollettino Geofisico, 21 (1-2), 13-29.
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Castagnero, Vicenza
Castagnero, Vicenza

EC flag Controlled within FRIENDLY HEATING project; gilled tubes as skirting-board convectors.

Temperature profile near a gilled tubes heater
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S. Pietro al Po, Cremona
S. Pietro al Po, Cremona

Warm-air heating, basic temperature

Temperature pattern without heating
  1. Ceiling temperature
  2. Left wall temperature
  3. Floor temperature
  4. Right wall temperature
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S. Michele, Cremona
S. Michele, Cremona

Warm-air heating, basic temperature

Temperature pattern without heating
  1. Ceiling temperature
  2. Left wall temperature
  3. Floor temperature
  4. Right wall temperature
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Orvieto Cathedral
Orvieto Cathedral

Solar radiation falling on the mid facade causes stress to the mosaic tesseraeAir Temperature, Relative and Specific Humidity, Dew Point Spread 3 cm close to the facade

  • Camuffo, D. and Bernardi, A., 1988: Microclimate and Interactions between Atmosphere and the Orvieto Cathedral. The Science of the Total Environment, 68, 1-10.
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Interior of the St.Stefan's Church
 UNESCO's logo UNESCO's World List of Cultural Heritage The Church of Sveti Stefan, Nessebar, Bulgaria
  • Camuffo, D., 1991: Report on the mission to Sveti Stefan, Nessebar, Bulgaria. UNESCO, Paris.
  • Bernardi, A., Todorov, V. and Hiristova, J. 2000: Microclimatic Analysis in St.Stefan's Church Nessebar, Bulgaria after interventions for the conservation of frescoes. J.Cultural Heritage, 1, 281-286.
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For further discussion see:

 

Microclimate for
Cultural Heritage



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