CNR - ISAC, Unit UOS of Padua

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Instrumental Series

EC flag IMPROVE (Improved understanding of past climatic variability
from early daily European instrumental sources)
Analysis of the long meteorological series of daily instrumental records performed at Padova (1725-today)

Project leader: Dr. D. Camuffo.

This series is one of the longest series in the world, is unbroken, unexploited and includes: barometric pressure, air temperature, rainfall, wind direction and force, cloud cover and other visual observations. The first aim was to critically evaluate the limits of confidence of this long meteorological series and their degree of homogeneity to analyse this series after having improved its reliability.

The systematic errors (e.g. calibration, exposure, relocation, timing of observation, method of computing the average daily values) were determined as well as the apparent climate changes common to all the long time series, due e.g. to changes in measuring methodologies originated by the adoption of new conventions / standards / international recommendations (e.g. change of calibration procedures; change of thermometric liquid; adoption of meteorological screens; change of the number and time of daily observations; changes of the reference time: apparent solar time / mean solar time, i.e. clock, which differs by ±16 min from the previous one / West European Time).

The Unit is now performing the mathematical analysis of the series and drawing the climatic interpretation of the results (see Contracts and Cooperations).


Astronomic Observatory Astronomic Observatory Specola,
  1. To study the history of the meteorological observations performed in Padova in the context of the scientific knowledge of the past three centuries.
  2. To copy from the original registers, determine all the errors, correct, validate, seek for the lost data and analyse the long meteorological series of Padova (1725-today) which is still unexploited.
  3. To analyse the accuracy of the instrumental measurements and evaluate the typical systematic errors.
  4. To evidence the apparent climate changes due to changes in measuring methodologies originated by the adoption of new conventions / standards / international recommendations.


  • Yan, Z., Jones, P.D., Davies, T.D., Moberg, A., Bergstrom, H., Camuffo, D., Cocheo, C., Maugeri, M., Demarée, G., Verhoeve, T., Barriendos, M., Rodriguez, R., Martin-Vide, J. and Yang, C., 2002: Extreme Temperature Trends in Europe and China Based on Daily Observations. Climatic Change, 53 (1-3), 355-393.
  • Cocheo, C. and Camuffo, D., 2002: Corrections of systematic errors and data homogenisation in the Padova series (1725 - today). Climatic Change, 53 (1-3), 77-100.
  • Camuffo, D., 2002: Errors in early temperature series arising from changes in style of measuring time, sampling schedule and number of observations. Climatic Change, 53 (1-3), 331-354.
  • Camuffo, D., 2002: Calibration and instrumental errors in early measurements of air temperature. Climatic Change, 53 (1-3), 297-330.
  • Camuffo, D., 2002: History of the long series of the air temperature in Padova (1725-today). Climatic Change, 53 (1-3), 7-76.
  • Moberg, A., Jones, P.D., Bergstrom, H., Camuffo, D., Cocheo, C., Davies, T.D., Demarée, G., Maugeri, M., Martin-Vide, J. and Verhoeve, T., 2000: Day-to-day Temperature Variability Trends in 160- to 275-year-long European Instrumental Records. J. Geophys. Res. -Atmospheres, 105: D18, 22849-22868.
  • Camuffo, D., Cocheo, C. and Enzi, S., 2000: Seasonality of instability phenomena (hailstorms and thunderstorms) in Padova, Northern Italy, from archive and instrumental sources from AD 1300 to 1989. The Holocene, 10:5, 651-658.
  • Camuffo, D., 1984: Analysis of the Series of Precipitation at Padova, Italy. Climatic Change, 6, 57-77.

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