The present page contains links to ground validation data available from various sources. Users are asked to address comments and/or alerts on new links to Dr. Robert Kuligowski

Gauge Data (United States)

Gauge Data (non-US)

Gauge Data (Ocean)

  • Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Buoy Data

    10-min and daily precipitation from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific), PIRATA (Atlantic) and RAMA (Indian) moorings in ASCII and netCDF format. Standard buoy measurements also include SST, winds, humidity and air temperature, with several sites also providing surface radiation. TAO data available through about 2014, after which time NDBC began processing and archiving of these data (see below). RAMA and PIRATA data are processed and archived by NOAA/PMEL and are only available here. See Serra et al. (2001) linked below for guidance on error estimates specific to these buoy precipitation measurements, including a suggested wind undercatchment correction (this correction has not been applied to these data). Contact: Kenneth Connell

  • Ocean Climate Stations

    Includes hourly and daily precipitation for 3 buoy locations (32.3N 144.6E, 50.1N 144.9W, 38.5S 30E) in ASCII and netCDF format. These gauges have been corrected for wind effects using the correction suggested in Serra et al. (2001); please hit the blue "Documentation" button for details. Contact: Kenneth Connell

  • National Data Buoy Center

    The NDBC portal for operational buoy networks that includes a wide range of buoy data (including the two datasets above). Only some buoys include precipitation measurements. The TAO array became operational in 2007 and thus processing and archiving of these data has transitioned to NDBC over the past several years. Unlike NOAA/PMEL, processing of TAO data, including rainfall, since about 2014 is now done in realtime so caution is advised if using these more recent NDBC processed data. NOAA/PMEL processed data are available here as well as the more recent (since about 2014) NDBC realtime processed data. Both are provided at 10-min and daily time steps. See deployment type to determine if processing was through NDBC or NOAA/PMEL. Contact: Bob Kuligowski

  • TAO OceanSITES Page

    Hourly and daily precipitation, as well as evaporation, heat flux, radiative flux, wind stress and other surface flux products, from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific), PIRATA (Atlantic) and RAMA (Indian) moorings in ASCII and netCDF format. This page is under development so not all sites are complete at this time. Contact: Kenneth Connell

  • Journal Article on Rain Gauge Error Estimates

    Serra, Y., P. A'Hearn, H. Freitag, and M. McPhaden, 2001: ATLAS self-siphoning rain gauge error estimates. J Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 18, 1989-2002.

Gauge Data (Land Meso / Micronets)

Disdrometer Data (Ocean)

  • OceanRAIN v. 1.0


    OceanRAIN-the Ocean Rainfall And Ice-phase precipitation measurement Network-provides in-situ along-track shipboard data of precipitation, evaporation and the resulting freshwater flux at 1-min resolution over the global oceans from June 2010 to April 2017. More than 6.83 million minutes with 75 parameters from 8 ships cover all routinely measured atmospheric and oceanographic state variables along with those required to derive the turbulent heat fluxes.
    The precipitation parameter is based on measurements of the optical disdrometer ODM470 specifically designed for all-weather shipboard operations. The rain, snow and mixed-phase precipitation occurrence, intensity and accumulation are derived from particle size distributions. Additionally, microphysical parameters and radar-related parameters are provided.
    Addressing the need for high-quality in-situ precipitation data over the global oceans, OceanRAIN-1.0 is the first comprehensive along-track in-situ water cycle surface reference dataset for satellite product validation and retrieval calibration of the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement) era, to improve the representation of precipitation and air-sea interactions in re-analyses and models, and to improve understanding of water cycle processes over the global oceans.
    More information from the web site of OceanRain.
    Contact: Christian Klepp

Radar Data

  • National Mosaic & Multi-sensor QPE (NMQ)

    The NMQ project is a joint initiative between the National Severe Storms Laboratory, Federal Aviation Administration, National Weather Service/Office of Hydrologic Development, the Office of Climate, Water and Weather Services and the University of Oklahoma Cooperative Institute in Mesoscale Meteorological Studies.

  • British Atmospheric Data Centre (FREE ACCOUNT REQUIRED)

    The Nimrod dataset includes a 5-km, 15-min composite for the UK, Ireland, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Belgium. 1-km composites are also available for the UK only. Contact: Bob Kuligowski

  • Stage IV Radar / Gauge Data over CONUS (recent)

    CONUS only. This radar-gauge composite starts by converting radar reflectivities to rates, summing for 1 hour, and performing a mean-field bias correction for each radar umbrella by comparison with gauges. After mosaicking the radar umbrellas together, a local bias correction is applied via kriging of the composite with gauge data. Unfortunately, the Z-R relationship and gauges used in the processing are not archived, and radar artifacts can still show up in the composites. Contact: Bob Kuligowski

  • Stage IV Radar / Gauge Data over CONUS (archive back to 2002)

    See above.