Giulia Panegrossi

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Research Activity: 

My research interests include remote sensing of clouds and precipitation; passive microwave precipitation retrieval algorithms; radiative transfer through precipitating clouds; microphysics characterization of precipitating clouds using models and observations; development of microphysics schemes; cloud electrification; nowcasting techniques; analysis of heavy precipitation events through the use of NWP models (UW-NMS, MM5, WRF-ARW) and comparison with remote, ground-based and in-situ measurements. My current scientific activity is mainly related to the development of physically-based Passive Microwave (PMW) precipitation retrieval algorithms for the cross-track and conically scanning radiometers in the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission constellation of satellites: SSMIS on board the U.S. DMSP satellites, ATMS on board the Suomi NPP (and JPSS series), AMSU/MHS on board Met-OP and NOAA satellites, AMSR-2 on board GCOM-W1, and GMI on board the GPM Core Observatory. This activity, carried out within the precipitation retrieval algorithm Development Team of the EUMETSAT Hydrological Satellite Application Facility (H-SAF), Second Continuous Development and Operational Phase (CDOP-2, 2012-2017), continues within H-SAF CDOP-3 (2017-2022) where I am a member of the H SAF Project Team, and I coordinate the scientific activity related to the development of the day-1 H-SAF passive microwave precipitation products for the EPS-SG microwave radiometers (MWI, MWS, ICI). As Co-PI of the ESA RainCast study I lead the activity on the assessment of snowfall retrieval capabilities of currently available spaceborne MW active and passive radiometers.  Within the Copernicus Climate Change Service SQUARE4ECVs  project (C3S_511) “Scientific Quality Assessment and Report for Essential Climate Variables (ECVs)”  I contribute to the Planned Thematic Assessments and Quality Briefs . Within the C3S_312b: "Essential Climate Variable (ECV) products derived from observations Lot 1: precipitation, surface radiation budget, water vapour, cloud properties, and Earth radiation budget" I lead the Precipitation ECV Climate Data Record generation (global daily and monthly mean precipitation estimate) based on passive microwave long-term Level 1 data record. As Co-PI of the national PRIN 20154WX5NA "Reconciling precipitation with runoff"  funded research project I am responsible of CNR-ISAC Research Unit and leader of WP 5 aimed at the Improvement of areal rainfall estimates based on integration of radar, raingauges, and satellite sources. As part of the Earth2Observe FP7 EU funded project (2014-2017), I have been involved in delivery and development of satellite precipitation products from space-borne passive microwave radiometers, with focus on the improvement of retrieval of light precipitation (at mid-high latitudes) and snowfall retrieval exploiting the high frequency channels (above 89 GHz).

Main Research Projects and activities

RainCast (ESA  ITT AO/1-9324/18/NL/IA) ): A multi-platform and multi-sensor study to address the requirement from the research and operational communities for global precipitation measurements 

Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S_312b): Essential Climate Variable (ECV) products derived from observations Lot 1: precipitation, surface radiation budget, water vapour, cloud properties, and Earth radiation budget

Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S-511) Quality Assessment of ECV products: SQUARE4ECVs  Scientific Quality Assessment and Report for Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) 

PRIN 2015 funded project: Reconciling precipitation with runoff: the role of understated measurement biases in the modeling of hydrological processes. Responsible of ISAC-CNR Research Unit 

EUMETSAT Project Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF) (

Earth2Observe (FP7 EU funded project) (

No-cost collaboration proposal “H-SAF and GPM: precipitation algorithm development and validation activity”, approved by the NASA PMM Research Program and endorsed by EUMETSAT 

Federated Activity H_SAF_FA15_01 between H-SAF and the PMM science Team [Benjamin T. Johnson (AER/NOAA) and Mark Kulie (SSEC/UW-Madison)] “Cooperation on the use of combined spaceborne active and passive MW observations for precipitation retrieval” 

Federated Activity H_SAF_FA17_01 "Assessment of ground-reference data in Brazil and validation of the H-SAF precipitation products in the perspective of CDOP-3" 

Member of the Precipitation Measurement Mission (PMM) Science Team 


  1.  Capozzi V.M. MontopoliV. MazzarellaA. C.MarraN. RobertoG. PanegrossiS. Dietrich and G. BudillonMulti-Variable Classification Approach for the Detection of Lightning Activity Using a Low-Cost and Portable X Band RadarRemote Sens. 2018, 10(11), 1797;
  2. Amaral, L. Martins Costa, S. Barbieri, D. Vila, S. Puca, G. Vulpiani, G. Panegrossi, T. Biscaro, P. Sanò, M. Petracca, A. C. Marra, M. Gosset, S. Dietrich, Assessment of Ground-Reference Data and Validation of the H-SAF Precipitation Products in Brazil, Remote Sens. 2018, 10(11), 1743; doi:10.3390/rs10111743
  3. Rysman, J.-F., G. Panegrossi, A. C. Marra, S. Dietrich, L. Milani, M. Kulie, SLALOM: An all-surface snow water path retrieval algorithm for the GPM Microwave Imgaer, Remote Sens. 2018, 10(8), 1278;
  4. Sanò P., G. Panegrossi, D. Casella, A. C. Marra, L. P. D’Adderio, J.-F. Rysman, S. Dietrich, The Passive Microwave Neural Network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR) algorithm for the Conical Scanning GMI Radiometer, Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1122; doi:10.3390/rs10071122 
  5. Milani, L., M. Kulie, D. Casella, S. Dietrich, T. L'Ecuyer, G. Panegrossi, F. Porcu', P. Sano', N. Wood, CloudSat Snowfall Estimates over Antarctica and the Southern Ocean: An Assessment of Independent Retrieval Methodologies and Multi-Year Snowfall Analysis, Atmos. Res., 213, 121-135, DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2018.05.015, 2018
  6. Derin, Y.,  E. Anagnostou, M. Anagnostou, J. Kalogiros, D. Casella, A. C. Marra, G. Panegrossi P. Sanò, , Passive Microwave Rainfall Error Analysis Using High- Resolution X-Band Dual-Polarization Radar Observations in Complex Terrain, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing pp(99):1-22, DOI 10.1109/TGRS.2017.2763622, 2018
  7. Panegrossi G., J-F. Rysman, D. Casella, A. C. Marra, P. Sanò, and M. S. Kulie, CloudSat-based assessment of GPM Microwave Imager snowfall observation capabilities, Rem. Sensing, 9(12), 1263; doi:10.3390/rs9121263, 2017.
  8. Federico, S., M. Petracca, G. Panegrossi, C. Transerici, and S. Dietrich, Impact of lightning data assimilation on the precipitation forecast at different forecast ranges, Adv. in Sci. and Res., 14, 187-194,, 2017.
  9. Casella, D., Panegrossi G., Dietrich S., Marra A.C., Sanò P., M. S. Kulie, B. T. Johnson,  Evaluation of the GPM-DPR snowfall detection capability: comparison with CloudSat, Atmos. Res., 197, 64-75,, 2017
  10. Marra A. C., F. Porcu', L. Baldini, M. Petracca, D. Casella, S. Dietrich, A. Mugnai, P. Sanò, G. Vulpiani, G. Panegrossi, Observational analysis of an exceptionally intense hailstorm over the Mediterranean area: Role of the  GPM Core Observatory, Atmos. Res., 182, 72-90, 2017
  11. Casella D., L. M. Amaral, S. Dietrich, A. C. Marra, P. Sanò, and G. Panegrossi, The Cloud Dynamics and Radiation Database algorithm for AMSR2: exploitation of the GPM observational dataset for operational applications, IEEE J. of Sel. Topics in Appl. Earth Obs. and Rem. Sens. (J-STARS), 10(8), DOI : 10.1109/JSTARS.2017.2713485, 2017
  12. Federico, S., Petracca, M., Panegrossi, G., and Dietrich, S.: Improvement of RAMS precipitation forecast at the short-range through lightning data assimilation, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 61-76, doi:10.5194/nhess-17-61-2017, 2017.  
  13. Ciabatta L., Marra A. C., Panegrossi G., Casella D., Sanò P., Dietrich S., Massari C., Brocca L., Daily precipitation estimation through different microwave sensors: Verification study over Italy, J. of Hydrology, 545, 436-450, DOI:, 2017. 
  14. Sanò, P., Panegrossi, G., Casella, D., Marra, A. C., Di Paola, F., and Dietrich, S.: The new Passive microwave Neural network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR) algorithm for the cross-track scanning ATMS radiometer: description and verification study over Europe and Africa using GPM and TRMM spaceborne radars, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5441-5460, doi:10.5194/amt-9-5441-2016, 2016. 
  15. Panegrossi G., D. Casella, S. Dietrich, A. C. Marra, M. Petracca, P. Sanò, A. Mugnai, L. Baldini, N. Roberto, E. Adirosi, R. Cremonini, R. Bechini, G. Vulpiani, and F. Porcù: Use of the GPM constellation for monitoring heavy precipitation events over the Mediterranean region, IEEE J. of Sel. Topics in Appl. Earth Obs. and Rem. Sens. (J-STARS), Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages: 2733 - 2753, DOI: 10.1109/JSTARS.2016.2520660, 2016. 
  16. Roberto, N., Adirosi, E., Baldini, L., Casella, D., Dietrich, S., Gatlin, P., Panegrossi, G., Petracca, M., Sanò, P., and Tokay, A.: Multi-sensor analysis of convective activity in central Italy during the HyMeX SOP 1.1, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 535-552, doi:10.5194/amt-9-535-2016, 2016. 
  17. Casella, D., Panegrossi, G., Sanò, P., Milani, L., Petracca, M., and Dietrich, S.: A novel algorithm for detection of precipitation in tropical regions using PMW radiometers, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1217-1232, doi:10.5194/amt-8-1217-2015, 2015. 
  18. Sanò, P., Panegrossi, G., Casella, D., Di Paola, F., Milani, L., Mugnai, A., Petracca, M., and Dietrich, S.: The Passive microwave Neural network Precipitation Retrieval (PNPR) algorithm for AMSU/MHS observations: description and application to European case studies, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 837-857, DOI:10.5194/amt-8-837-2015, 2015.  
  19. Davolio, S., R. Ferretti, L. Baldini, M. Casaioli, D. Cimini, M. E. Ferrario, S.Gentile, N. Loglisci, I. Maiello, A. Manzato, S. Mariani, C. Marsigli, F. S.Marzano, M. M. Miglietta, A. Montani, G. Panegrossi, F. Pasi, E. Pichelli, A.Pucillo, A. Zinzi, The role of the Italian Scientific community in the first HyMeX SOP: an oustanding multidisciplinary experience, Meteor. Zeit., doi: 10.1127/metz/2015/0624, 2015. 
  20. Milani, L., Porcù, F., Casella, D., Dietrich, S., Panegrossi, G., Petracca, M., and Sanò, P.: Analysis of long-term precipitation pattern over Antarctica derived from satellite-borne radar, The Cryosphere Discuss., 9, 141-182, doi:10.5194/tcd-9-141-2015, 2015.
  21. Pichelli, E., Ferretti, R., Cimini, D., Panegrossi, G., Perissin, D., Pierdicca, N., Rocca F., and Rommen, B.: InSAR Water Vapor Data Assimilation into Mesoscale Model MM5: Technique and Pilot Study, JSTARS (Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of), 8 (8), 6922479, pp. 3859-3875, DOI: 10.1109/JSTARS.2014.2357685, 2015. 
  22. Ferretti R., E. Pichelli, S. Gentile, I. Maiello, D. Cimini, S. Davolio, M. M. Miglietta, G. Panegrossi, L. Baldini, F. Pasi, F. S. Marzano, A. Zinzi, S. Mariani, M. Casaioli, G. Bartolini, N. Loglisci, A. Montani, C. Marsigli, A. Manzato, A. Pucillo, M. E. Ferrario, V. Colaiuda, and R. Rotunno: Overview of the first HyMeX Special Observation Period over Italy: observations and model results, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1953-1977, DOI:10.5194/hess-18-1953-2014, 2014. 
  23. Federico, S., Avolio, E., Petracca, M., Panegrossi, G., Sanò, P., Casella, D., and Dietrich, S.: Simulating lightning into the RAMS model: implementation and preliminary results, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 2933-2950, doi:10.5194/nhess-14-2933-2014, 2014. 
  24. Puca, S., F. Porcù, A. Rinollo, G. Vulpiani, P. Baguis, S. Balabanova, E. Campione, A. Ertürk, S. Gabellani, R. Iwański, M. Jurašek, J. Kaňák, J. Kerényi, G. Koshinchanov, G. Kozinarova, P. Krahe, B. Łapeta, E. Lábó, L. Milani, Ľ. Okon, A. Öztopal, P. Pagliara, F. Pignone, C. Rachimow, N. Rebora, E. Roulin, I. Sönmez, A. Toniazzo, D. Biron, D. Casella, E. Cattani, S. Dietrich, F. Di Paola, S. Laviola, V. Levizzani, D. Melfi, A. Mugnai, G. Panegrossi, M. Petracca, P. Sanò, F. Zauli, P. Rosci, L. De Leonibus, E. Agosta, and F. Gattari, 2014: The validation service of the hydrological SAF geostationary and polar satellite precipitation products., Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci.,14, 871-889, doi:10.5194/nhess-14-871-2014. 
  25. Mugnai, A., Casella, D., Cattani, E., Dietrich, S., Laviola, S., Levizzani, V., Panegrossi, G., Sanò, P., Biron, D., De Leonibus, L., Melfi, D., Rosci, P., Vocino, A., Zauli, F., Puca, S., Rinollo, A., Milani, L., Porcù, F., and Gattari, F.: Precipitation products from the Hydrology SAF, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 1959-1981, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-13-1959-2013, 2013. 
  26. Casella, D., Panegrossi, G., Sanò, P., Mugnai, A., Smith, E.A., Tripoli, G.J., Dietrich, S., Formenton, M., Di Paola, F., Leung, H. W.-Y., and Mehta, A.V.: Transitioning from CRD to CDRD in Bayesian retrieval of rainfall from satellite passive microwave measurements, Part 2: Overcoming database profile selection ambiguity by consideration of meteorological control on microphysics,  IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens, vol.51, no.9, pp.4650-4671, 2013, DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2013.2258161, 2013. 
  27. Smith, E.A., Leung, H. W.-L., Elsner, J.B., Mehta, A.V., Tripoli, G.J., Casella, D., Dietrich, S., Mugnai, A., Panegrossi, G., and Sanò, P.: Transitioning from CRD to CDRD in Bayesian retrieval of rainfall from satellite passive microwave measurements, Part 3: Identification of optimal meteorological tags, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 1185–1208, 2013. 
  28. Mugnai A., E. A. Smith, G. J. Tripoli, B. Bizzarri, D. Casella, S. Dietrich, F. Di Paola, G. Panegrossi, P. Sanò, CDRD and PNPR Satellite Passive Microwave  Precipitation Retrieval Algorithms: EuroTRMM / EURAINSAT Origins and H-SAF Operations, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 887-912, 2013. 
  29. Formenton M., G. Panegrossi, D. Casella, S. Dietrich, A. Mugnai, P. Sanò, F. Di Paola, H.-D. Betz, C. Price, and Y. Yair, Using a cloud electrification model to study relationships between lightning activity and cloud microphysical structure, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 1085-1104, 2013
  30. Panegrossi, G., R. Ferretti, L. Pulvirenti, N. Pierdicca, 2011: Impact of ASAR soil moisture data on the MM5 precipitation forecast for the Tanaro flood event of April 2009, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3135–3149, 2011. 
  31. Tripoli, G. J., C. M. Medaglia, S. Dietrich, A. Mugnai, G. Panegrossi, S. Pinori, E. A. Smith: The 9-10 November, 2001 Algerian flood: a numerical study. Bull. of Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86, 9, 1229-1235, DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-86-9-1229, 2005. 
  32. Smith, E. A., P. Bauer, F. S. Marzano, C. D. Kummerow, D. McKague, A. Mugnai, G. Panegrossi, 2002: Intercomparison of Microwave radiative Transfer Models for Precipitating Clouds, IEEE Trans. Geosci. and Rem. Sens.,  40 (3), 541-549. 
  33. Marzano, F. S., A. Mugnai, G. Panegrossi, N. Pierdicca, E. A. Smith. J. Turk, 1999: Bayesian Estimation of precipitating cloud parameters form combined measurements of spaceborne microwave radiometer and radar, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens., 37 (1), 596-612. 
  34. Panegrossi G., S. Dietrich, F.S. Marzano , A. Mugnai, E.A. Smith, X. Xiang, J. Tripoli, P.K. Wang and J.P.V. Poiares Baptista: Use of cloud model Microphysics for passive microwave-based precipitation retrieval: significance of consistency between model and measurement manifolds; J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 1644-1673, DOI:<1644:UOCMMF>2.0.CO;2 1998. 
  35. Boni G., M. Conti, S. Dietrich, L. Lanza, F. S. Marzano, A. Mugnai, G. Panegrossi and F. Siccardi, 1996: Multisensor observations during the event of November 4-6, 1994 over Northern Italy, Rem. Sens. Rev., 14, 91-117.
  36. Panegrossi, G., D. Fuà, G. Fiocco, 1996: A 1 D model of formation and evolution of PSC's: description and comparison with LIDAR and water vapor measurement at South Pole during 1990, J. Atmos. Chem., 25, 5-35.